A Comprehensive Guide To Competition Law - Anylaw (2023)

Fundamental Concepts Of Competition Law

Competition laws vary worldwide but typically involve prohibitions against price fixing, monopolization, bid rigging, and other forms of market manipulation deemed unfair or deceptive practices. Here’s an in-depth discussion of each concept:

  1. Market Power

Market power is a concept that’s been used to describe the ability of firms to influence prices or restrict output in each market. It can refer to the monopoly power held by an individual firm and the collective action of firms operating within a particular sector.

(Video) An Introduction to Competition Law

It plays a vital role in competition law, with specific rules and regulations designed to limit its potential for abuse. Such legislation typically prevents anticompetitive practices from distorting markets, including price fixing and collusive competition agreements.

  1. Market Dominance

Building upon the concept of market power, market dominance is typically seen as a step further in terms of the concentration of resources. It refers to when one or more firms control an overwhelming majority of the market share within a particular sector:

  • Market dominance can be determined by measuring turnover, assets, and profits.
  • Establishing whether firms can influence prices or other trading conditions.
  • Identifying any barriers that may make it difficult for new market entrants.

Market dominance may be used as evidence in determining if anticompetitive practices are taking place, with authorities being particularly concerned about any potential abuse due to its highly influential position.

  1. Collusion

Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties to limit competition and manipulate market prices. It occurs when firms agree not to compete in the same area, set output quotas, fix prices, share markets, rig bids, or cooperate to reduce competition.

Generally, collusive agreements are illegal under both EU and national laws aimed at preserving fair markets for businesses and consumers alike. Such arrangements can lead to higher prices for goods and services, lower quality of products, and less innovation as firms no longer need to develop new technologies or processes to stay competitive.

  1. Abuse Of Dominant Position

Collusion, which involves two or more entities working together to restrict competition and create a monopoly in the market, may often lead to abusing the dominant position. An entity is said to hold a dominant position when it can control prices or exclude competitors from entering the market.

Such practices are considered anticompetitive by antitrust laws and can result in severe penalties for those found guilty of violating them. Abuse of a dominant position occurs when one entity forces another out of the market through unfair means such as predatory pricing, refusal to deal with rivals, and tying arrangements that limit consumer choice.

(Video) A to Z of career in Competition Law | Anubhav Garg & Swati Sharma

  1. Merger Control

Merger control is an essential component of competition law, as it seeks to prevent the formation or expansion of monopolies and cartels. The basics of merger control involve four core elements:

  • An assessment of whether a merger or acquisition will create or strengthen a dominant position in the market
  • Examining any potential anticompetitive effects on other competitors within the same market
  • Investigating possible remedies for those affected by anticompetitive behavior
  • Making sure that all regulatory requirements are met regarding reporting and notification procedures before any mergers are allowed to proceed

In order to ensure fairness, transparency and consistency in decision-making processes are paramount so as not to distort competition nor interfere with efficient markets. Therefore, regulators must monitor the process closely and intervene, if necessary, to protect consumer interests.

  1. Price Fixing

Price fixing is an anticompetitive practice when businesses, usually within the same market or industry, agree to set prices for goods and services artificially. This type of agreement is designed to limit competition by preventing competitors from offering lower prices than those set by the group.

It can be done directly between parties or indirectly through third parties such as trade associations. However, it’s important to note that price fixing doesn’t require a contract or the need to involve all firms in a particular market; agreements involving just two firms are sufficient.

  1. Bid Rigging

Bid rigging is a form of anticompetitive conduct that occurs when two or more parties agree not to compete with each other in the bidding process. This collusion commonly involves inflated bids where one bidder will submit a high bid and then be rewarded by the seller for cooperation. Likewise, it can affect collusive non-bidding where no participants enter an actual auction process but instead allow only one individual or entity to win without competing against others.

To prevent bid rigging from occurring, it’s crucial to understand key indicators that could suggest collusion has taken place:

  • Bidding patterns that indicate similar offerings across multiple bidders
  • Widespread changes in bidding formats
  • An absence of competitive tension throughout the bidding process

Businesses must ensure they’re aware of any potential signs of bid rigging so they can take necessary steps to avoid involvement in this illegal activity.

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  1. Market Sharing

Market sharing, which may also be referred to as market division, occurs when two or more businesses agree not to compete in specific markets within their industry. This anticompetitive agreement can limit competition, reduce consumer choice, and increase prices. It can take various forms such as geographical divisions, customer allocation, and product rationing.

Businesses in this practice may exchange confidential information on pricing plans, production strategies, and other sensitive matters. Companies mustn’t engage in collusion or market-sharing agreements to ensure fair and open consumer competition.

  1. Predatory Pricing

One area within competition law that’s hard to navigate is predatory pricing or setting low prices to eliminate competitors from the market. This occurs when one business sets its prices below those charged by rivals to drive them out of the market.

The goal is for the predator to become the only firm in the industry with no competition, thus allowing it to raise prices without restraint once it eliminates all other players. By reducing choices in each sector, consumers may face higher costs due to less competitive markets and decreased bargaining power when purchasing goods or services.

  1. Exclusive Dealing

Exclusive dealing is a type of business practice firms employ to increase their market power and influence. It involves making contracts with customers that limit their ability to buy from competitors or require them to purchase additional products for the contract to be honored.

It can also involve exclusive supply agreements, limiting goods or services’ availability to particular outlets. This type of conduct may create an anticompetitive environment if it restricts competition and has the potential to lessen consumer choices and lead to higher prices.

  1. Tying And Bundling

Tying and bundling are similar practices, but they involve different products or services. Tying involves requiring customers who want one product to purchase a second, unrelated product. In contrast, bundling requires customers to buy multiple items in a transaction.


Both practices can limit consumer choice and raise prices for buyers. They may also reduce incentives for innovation and lead to inefficient allocation of resources. As such, both tying and bundling need to be closely monitored by competition authorities to ensure that consumers benefit from dynamic markets characterized by vigorous competition.

  1. Refusal To Supply

Refusal to supply is an anticompetitive practice that can be used by firms in a dominant position. It involves refusing or failing to provide goods or services without valid business justification, and it harms competition in the relevant market. This can include situations such as when a firm denies its products or services to specific customers, discriminates between existing customers, or refuses access to essential inputs.

This can limit customer choice and reduce competitive pressures in the marketplace, resulting in higher prices and poorer quality of service. Aside from potential breaches of antitrust laws, refusal to supply may also violate other regulatory frameworks such as consumer protection and public procurement.

The Future Of Competition Law

As competition law continues to evolve, its importance in protecting businesses and consumers from anticompetitive behavior will remain paramount. In the age of technology and globalization, competition law must remain flexible enough to address new challenges while maintaining a vigilant stance against anticompetitive practices.

Moreover, as economies become increasingly interconnected, international cooperation on enforcement efforts must be improved to ensure an equitable playing field for all participants across multiple jurisdictions.


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Competition law is essential for promoting fair competition and preventing anticompetitive market practices. In the future, it’ll continue to be used to ensure that businesses operate within legal boundaries while protecting consumer interests.

Technological advancements have created new challenges for competition law enforcement, which must constantly evolve to remain effective. This comprehensive guide has outlined the importance, purpose, and scope of competition law so that all stakeholders can better understand its application and have confidence in its fairness.


What is the s45 competition and Consumer Act? ›

Section 45 prohibits making or giving effect to a contract, arrangement or understanding (or a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding) if it has the purpose, or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition.

What are the key principles that form the basis of most competition laws? ›

Competition law requires that firms proposing to merge gain authorization from the relevant government authority. The theory behind mergers is that transaction costs can be reduced compared to operating on an open market through bilateral contracts. Concentrations can increase economies of scale and scope.

What violates competition law? ›

The most common antitrust violations fall into two categories: (i) Agreements to restrain competition, and (ii) efforts to acquire a monopoly. In the case of a merger, a combination that would likely substantially reduce competition in a market would also violate antitrust laws.

What are the four goals of competition law? ›

They identify four major objectives of EU competition law, including economic freedom and plurality, as well as consumer welfare, economic efficiency, and consumer choice and fairness.

What are three areas covered by the Competition and consumer Act? ›

The Competition and Consumer Act 2010
  • product safety and labelling.
  • unfair market practices.
  • price monitoring.
  • industry codes.
  • industry regulation – airports, electricity, gas, telecommunications.
  • mergers and acquisitions.

What is Section 4E of the Competition and consumer Act? ›

4E refers to a 'market in Australia', the geographic market may contain goods or services from overseas. Section 4 of the CCA makes it clear that competition includes competition from imported goods or from services rendered by persons not resident or not carrying on business in Australia.

What is the most crucial component of the competition Act? ›

The major components of the Competition Act are listed hereunder:
  • Control over mergers and acquisitions of a certain size.
  • Restrictions on anti-competitive agreements.
  • Formation of competition commission of India.
Feb 17, 2023

What is the first conduct rule in competition law? ›

The First Conduct Rule prohibits businesses from making or giving effect to an agreement, engaging in a concerted practice, or making or giving effect to a decision of an association, if the object or effect is to harm competition in Hong Kong.

What constitutes abuse of dominance? ›

Abuse of dominant position includes: Imposing unfair condition or price. Predatory pricing. Limiting production/market or technical development.

What are unfair practices in competition law? ›

Unfair competition is using illegal, deceptive, and fraudulent selling practices that harm consumers or other businesses to gain a competitive advantage in the market. Federal and state laws fight against these issues.

What is an act of unfair competition? ›

Any deceptive act or practice in the course of trade that causes, or is likely to cause, confusion with respect to another person or his activities, in particular with regard to the products or services offered by such person, shall constitute an act of unfair competition.

What can make a competition unfair? ›

Other practices that fall into the area of unfair competition include:
  • false advertising.
  • "bait and switch" selling tactics.
  • unauthorized substitution of one brand of goods for another.
  • use of confidential information by former employee to solicit customers.
  • theft of trade secrets.
  • breach of a restrictive covenant.

What laws protect competition? ›

Antitrust laws protect competition. Free and open competition benefits consumers by ensuring lower prices and new and better products. In a freely competitive market, each competing business generally will try to attract consumers by cutting its prices and increasing the quality of its products or services.

What are the four 4 types of competition? ›

Economic market structures can be grouped into four categories: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly. The categories differ because of the following characteristics: The number of producers is many in perfect and monopolistic competition, few in oligopoly, and one in monopoly.

What laws regulate competition? ›

The antitrust laws proscribe unlawful mergers and business practices in general terms, leaving courts to decide which ones are illegal based on the facts of each case. Courts have applied the antitrust laws to changing markets, from a time of horse and buggies to the present digital age.

What are the three key elements of competition policy? ›

There are three key areas of competition policy that antitrust agencies look at when evaluating anti-competitive business behaviour: restrictive practices, monopolies and cartels, and mergers.

What are the 3 major types of consumers? ›

one of three positions on the food chain: autotrophs (first), herbivores (second), and carnivores and omnivores (third).

What are 3 ways consumers benefit from competition? ›

Basic economic theory demonstrates that when firms have to compete for customers, it leads to lower prices, higher quality goods and services, greater variety, and more innovation.

What is Section 52 of the Competition Act? ›

52 (1) No person shall, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, the supply or use of a product or for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, any business interest, by any means whatever, knowingly or recklessly make a representation to the public that is false or misleading in a material ...

What is Section 12 of the Competition Act? ›

WHAT IS A MERGER? In terms of Section 12 of the Competition Act, 1998 (Act No. 89 of 1998), as amended, a merger occurs when one or more firms directly or indirectly acquire or establish direct or indirect control over the whole or part of the business of another firm.

What is Section 131 Competition and consumer Act? ›

Section 131(1) of the ACL requires that a "supplier" of consumer goods notify the relevant Commonwealth Minister (via the ACCC) of certain matters within two days after becoming aware of the death, serious injury or illness of any person which the supplier (or another person) considers was caused (or may have been ...

What are the elements of unfair competition tort? ›

Generally, unfair competition consists of two elements: First, there is some sort of economic injury to a business, such as loss of sales or consumer goodwill. Second, this economic injury is the result of deceptive or otherwise wrongful business practice.

What is the primary purpose of competition law? ›

Competition policy is about applying rules to make sure businesses and companies compete fairly with each other. This encourages enterprise and efficiency, creates a wider choice for consumers and helps reduce prices and improve quality.

What is the difference between competition law and competition policy? ›

Competition policy governs how businesses interact with both consumers and each other. A country's competition policy is the sum of its competition laws, which proscribe anti-competitive behaviour, and the effect that its public policy may have on competitive processes in the economy.

Is antitrust the same as competition law? ›

Antitrust rules prohibit agreements between market operators that would restrict competition, and the abuse of dominance. Competition encourages companies to offer consumers goods and services at the most favourable terms. It encourages efficiency and innovation and reduces prices.

What is the second conduct rule in competition law? ›

The Second Conduct Rule prohibits businesses with a substantial degree of market power from abusing that power by engaging in conduct that has the object or effect of harming competition in Hong Kong.

What is an example of competition law? ›

For example, a company may refuse to supply to a particular customer based on its poor credit rating, which would amount to the protection of legitimate business interests and not, therefore, constitute abusive conduct under Chapter II or Article 102.

What are signs of dominance? ›

A dominant personality involves traits like proactivity, assertiveness, and often, extroversion. Agression and manipulation are also possible. That assertive co-worker pushing you to your limits might be a team asset and goal-oriented, but a dominant personality could be challenging to handle.

What is an example of abuse of dominant power? ›

Using long-term or exclusive contracts to stop customers from changing suppliers. Using contracts that prevent commercial partners from giving more favourable terms to rivals. Cutting off essential supplies to rival companies. Selling products or services below cost to hurt or discipline a competitor.

What is an abuser mentality? ›

Low self-esteem and lack of self-confidence render the abuser - and his confabulated self - vulnerable to criticism, disagreement, exposure, and adversity - real or imagined. Abuse is bred by fear - fear of being mocked or betrayed, emotional insecurity, anxiety, panic, and apprehension.

How do you prove unfair competition? ›

To prove a violation under the fourth definition of unfair competition, the plaintiff must show that (1) the defendant engaged in unfair, deceptive, untrue or misleading advertising and (2) the plaintiff suffered injury in fact and lost money or property. California courts have interpreted "advertising" to include ...

What is common law unfair competition damages? ›

California's unfair competition law prohibits any unlawful, unfair or fraudulent business practice, or any false, deceptive or misleading advertising. Consumers or businesses that have been adversely affected by these unfair actions can bring lawsuits seeking monetary damages and/ or injunctions.

What kind of tort is unfair competition? ›

The law of unfair competition is primarily comprised of torts that cause an economic injury to a business through a deceptive or wrongful business practice.

What is misappropriation of unfair competition? ›

The elements of an unfair competition by common law misappropriation are: (1) the creation of plaintiff's product (i.e., the trade secret information) through extensive time, labor, skill, and money; (2) the defendant's use of that product in competition with the plaintiff, thereby gaining a special advantage in that ...

What is an example of an illegal behavior involving competition? ›

Examples of Unfair Competition Activities

Stealing a competitor's trade secrets or confidential information. Trade dress violation (copying the physical appearance of a product from a competitor) Breach of a restrictive covenant. Misrepresentation of the source of a product (reverse passing off)

How do you win against competitors? ›

10 Tips and Strategies to Help You Beat Your Competition
  1. Know Your Customers. ...
  2. Solve Problems. ...
  3. Analyze Your Competition. ...
  4. Determine Your Unique Selling Proposition (USP) ...
  5. Refine Your Messaging. ...
  6. Consider New Markets. ...
  7. Focus on Customer Relationships. ...
  8. Ask for Feedback.
Nov 1, 2022

How do you fight off competition? ›

How to Handle Competition in Business: 7 Tips to Beat Competition
  1. Know Your Customers.
  2. Understand the Competition.
  3. Highlight Your Difference.
  4. Clarify Your Message.
  5. Explore Strategic Partnership Opportunities.
  6. Keep Innovating.
  7. Look After Your Team.

What are the three antitrust laws? ›

The Sherman Act, the Federal Trade Commission Act, and the Clayton Act are the three pivotal laws in the history of antitrust regulation. Today, the Federal Trade Commission, sometimes in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Justice, is tasked with enforcing federal antitrust laws.

What is Section 1 of the Sherman Act? ›

Section 1 of the Sherman Act provides: “Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce … is declared to be illegal.”

What is the Sherman Act and Clayton Act? ›

Whereas the Sherman Act only declared monopoly illegal, the Clayton Act defined as illegal certain business practices that are conducive to the formation of monopolies or that result from them.

What are 5 examples of competition? ›

Types of Competition
  • Interspecific Competition. Interspecific competition is the one that occurs between different species that use the same resource or a group of resources. ...
  • Intraspecific Competition. ...
  • Interference Competition. ...
  • Exploitative Competition. ...
  • Apparent Competition.
Sep 15, 2022

What are the two main kinds of competition? ›

There are two different types of competition:
  • Intraspecific competition occurs between members of the same species. For example, two male birds of the same species might compete for mates in the same area. ...
  • Interspecific competition occurs between members of different species.
Mar 5, 2021

What is an example of a perfect competition? ›

What Is an Example of Perfect Competition? Consider a farmers market where each vendor sells the same type of jam. There is little differentiation between each of their products, as they use the same recipe, and they each sell them at an equal price.

Who regulates competition in the US? ›

The FTC's Bureau of Competition enforces the nation's antitrust laws, which form the foundation of our free market economy. The antitrust laws promote the interests of consumers; they support unfettered markets and result in lower prices and more choices.

Does the FTC regulate competition? ›

The basic statute enforced by the FTC, Section 5(a) of the FTC Act, empowers the agency to investigate and prevent unfair methods of competition, and unfair or deceptive acts or practices affecting commerce. This creates the Agency's two primary missions: protecting competition and protecting consumers.

What is the role of the Competition Act? ›

To promote the efficiency, adaptability and development of the economy. To provide consumers with competitive prices and product choices.

What is the consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act? ›

The Unlocking Consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act (S. 517; Pub. L. 113–144 (text) (PDF)) is a United States public law that repeals a rulemaking determination by the United States Copyright Office that left it illegal for people to unlock their cellphones.

What is 51acb of the Competition and consumer Act? ›

A corporation must not, in trade or commerce, contravene an applicable industry code.

What is an unfair method of competition? ›

Unfair methods of competition, the policy statement explains, are tactics that seek to gain an advantage while avoiding competing on the merits, and that tend to reduce competition in the market.

What act protects competition? ›

Congress passed the first antitrust law, the Sherman Act, in 1890 as a "comprehensive charter of economic liberty aimed at preserving free and unfettered competition as the rule of trade." In 1914, Congress passed two additional antitrust laws: the Federal Trade Commission Act, which created the FTC, and the Clayton ...

Who do competition laws protect? ›

These laws promote vigorous competition and protect consumers from anticompetitive mergers and business practices. The FTC's Bureau of Competition, working in tandem with the Bureau of Economics, enforces the antitrust laws for the benefit of consumers.

What is protected by the Competition and Consumer Act 2010? ›

It covers anti-competitive conduct, price fixing, unconscionable conduct and other issues, such as advertising. The Act also sets out consumers' rights and responsibilities. It covers areas such as returns, refunds, warranties, contracts, marketing and advertising.

What determines consumer choice? ›

Consumers have tastes and preferences that impact their choices. Consumers will look to optimize their decisions based on their budget and preferences.

What is an example of consumer choice? ›

For example, you probably buy the same specific items, more or less, each time you go to the grocery store. To explain consumer behavior, economists assume that consumers have a set of tastes or preferences that they use to guide them in choosing between goods. These tastes differ substantially among individuals.

What is subsection 51 3 of the cca? ›

Prior to its repeal, subsection 51(3) of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) (CCA) provided a limited exemption for some conduct relating to intellectual property rights from certain anti-competitive conduct prohibitions in the CCA.

What is an example of the Competition Act? ›

Examples include abuse of dominant position, refusal to supply, exclusive dealing, market restriction, tied selling, consignment selling, mergers and certain types of misleading advertising.

What is consumer harm in competition law? ›

Broadly, a theory of harm in a competition law case explains why a particular type of conduct constitutes a breach of competition law with reference to the relevant legal tests, and explains in particular why that conduct causes harm to competition that should be prohibited.

Can you name 3 common examples of unfair competition practices? ›

unauthorized substitution of one brand of goods for another. use of confidential information by former employee to solicit customers. theft of trade secrets. breach of a restrictive covenant.

What are violations of the unfair competition law? ›

The Unfair Competition Law of California prohibits false advertising and illegal business practices. The law is also known as the state's UCL. The law describes “unfair competition” as any unlawful, unfair, or fraudulent business act or practice, or false, deceptive, or misleading advertising.


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